Glossary Of Culinary Terms

Ala minute : Instantly
Al dente : Cooked so as to be firm to the bite
Bain marie / Double boiler / Water bath : a utensil consisting of two pots, one of which fits partway into the other: water is boiled in the lower pot to cook or warm food or melt a substance in the upper
Blanching : To cook an item in violently boiling water for a very short time (dip and remove)
Blind baking : Pre-cooking a pie crust without the filling with weight placed on it
Blooming-1 : Softening gelatin is a cold liquid
Blooming-2 : The white substance that appears on the surface of chocolate from heat and moisture difference
Butter packaging : Trapping/packaging butter inside a puff pastry that opens in the shape of a star
Carry over cooking : Continuing to cook in its own internal heat and/or the heat of the container it is in
Cartouche / Parchment : Wax paper
Chocolate filigree : Thin decorations done on tracing paper or wax paper with chocolate
Churning : Agitating or turning, especially vanilla sauce when making ice cream
Clarified butter : Butter made clear by heating and removing the sediment of milk solids
Confisserie chocolate : Chocolates that have a high melting temperature and are used for decor
Creaming : Whipping solid fats to make cream consistency
Crimping : Pressing down on tart dough to give shape
Crumble : Mixing flour and butter in a crumbly consistency
Curdling : Breaking into parts. Like milk separates when boiled
Docking : Penetrating the tart dough
Double folding : Folding like a book in puff pastry
Double panning : Cooking in two pans one on top of the other in order to avoid the base of products baking in the oven from changing color quickly
Dredge : Covering a product by sprinkling flour or powdered sugar
Drumming : Covering the part below the hoop in a pan with wax paper
Dutching : Treating chocolate with alkalizing agent to soften the flavor and make the color darker
Emulgator : To bring two matters with a different consistency to the same consistency
Emulsion : The mixing of two matters with different consistencies
Fat block! butter plastic : The mass achieved by kneading butter with flour
Firm honey : Sugar syrup at 116- 121 degrees
Folding : A process of mixing ingredients that is done so as not to deflate the ingredients while stirring
Gateau : Layered cake lighter than pie, chemical leavening agents used
Gianduja : Chocolate hazelnut butter
Glazing : Making the surface of the product shiny
Greasing & Dusting / Chemising : The process of applying grease and flour to the surface of baking molds
Hard honey : Sugar syrup at 121- 127 degrees
Hook : Dough kneading apparatus
Icing : Covering the product’s outer surface with frosting
Invert sugar : The sugar that is obtained when table sugar –sucrose reacts with citric acid and heat to separate into its own components glucose and fructose
Kneading : To work and press ingredients into a mass
Knocking back : Removing the gas that is formed in leavened dough by pressing
Lamination : To make thin layers of sheets in the dough by folding with butter
Lining : Greasing the mold
Lock in : Folding one side of a rectangular piece of puff pastry over the other side which has butter on it to trap the butter inside
Maillard reaction : A reaction that causes a change in color from amino acids reacting with sugar and heat
Marzipan : Crushed almond with sugar
Meringue : The stiffening of egg white by whisking
Mixing : Combining different ingredients
One at a time : Ingredients being added separately one after the other
Over cooking : Cooking more than necessary
Par baking : Pre-cooking in the oven
Parboiling : Pre-boiling / partially cooking
Pedal : Paste / a dough apparatus for kneading dough in paste form
Persipan : Crushed apricot seed with sugar
Plastic chocolate : A mixture of glucose and couverture used in icings
Poaching : To cook in rolling water just under boiling temperature
Praline : Grinding caramelized sugar with almond and hazelnut after it has cooled into a sand consistency
Prover : Leavening cabinet
Reduction : Heating a liquid on the stove until it evaporates and thickens
Remonce : A Danish filling with butter, sugar, cinnamon and marzipan
Ribbon stage : The consistency reached by whipping eggs whites where they become so stiff that when you lift the whisk it can be extended in ribbons that could be used for writing (ribbon consistency)
Rising / Proving / Fermenting : Leavening
Rolling boil : Active boiling state
Rubbing in : The method used in making pie dough by pressing in
Saccarometre : A tool used to measure the thickness of sugar syrup
Saute : Cooking an ingredient in a small amount of fluid by flipping
Scalding : Cooking products like milk/cream maintaining under a boil
(80 - 85 degrees)
Scaling : Separating the dough into balls/measuring out
Seam : The line which marks the final shape of bread
Seizing : The hardening and darkening of chocolate when water leaks into it
Semolina : An ingredient used in bread, helva and macaroni which is obtained by crushing wheat in 0.25-0.75 dimensions
Shaping & Final proving : Giving shape and final leavening
Single folding : The method of folding like a business letter in puff pastry
Slashing /scoring : Making small cuts on the dough
Slurry : Diluting binders like starch with a cold liquid
Soft honey : Sugar syrup at 112- 115 degrees
Soft peak : The consistency of egg white after whisking when it is soft and droopy
Spinning : A motion that is done to separate caramelized sugar fiber by fiber
Spun : Making sugar into fibers
Stew : Ingredients slow cooked in liquid and served in the resulting gravy
Stiff peak : The consistency of egg white after whisking when it is firma and stands stiff and sharp edged on the tip of the whisk
Tempering-1 : Bringing fluids at different temperatures to a common heat
Tempering-2 : Achieving the crystal structure of stage 5 for the cocoa oil in chocolate
Toppings : Ingredients placed on the end product
Torte : A layered cake with a more dense consistency than gateau
Trimming : Cutting the cake down
Whipping : Fluffing up by whisking
Whisk : Using a wire implement to stir
Window panning :

A control method used to see the effect of gluten. A small piece of the dough is separated out and stretched at the sides to check for elasticity