A single grain is very nutritious. Each grain is comprised of three parts: bran, wheat germ and endosperm. Bran is the part that makes up the layer of coating on the outside of the grain. With a harder structure it protects the other two parts from sun light, pests, water and diseases. It contains important antioxidants, vitamin B and a lot of fibers. Wheat germ is the embryo of the grain that can sprout to create another plant. It contains a lot of vitamin D, some proteins, minerals and beneficial fats. Endosperm is the source of nutrition for the embryo and provides nutrition until the new plant grows a root and starts getting taller. It comprises an important part of the grain and stores starch. The white flour we use for pastries, cakes and cookies is obtained from this part of wheat.
Flours that are whole grain contain all three of these parts. When flour is refined the bran and wheat germ are separated from the flour therefore losing nutritional value. Some flours are sold with the bran and wheat germ added in later. However in order to get real whole grain it is important to select those that are not ground by being separated from the “whole grain”.
The superiority of wheat among grains is that it can be used in many things. However hard the wheat is the more protein its flour contains. Soft low protein flours are used for making cakes, cookies and pastries. Hard high protein wheat is used for making bread. High protein wheat (gluten) is the best grain for making bread. When gluten combines with water it forms elastic bonds that trap the yeast gases inside the dough. This makes soft, fluffy bread that is eaten with pleasure.
ZThis is a type of grain that is popular because it can easily be grown in difficult soil and weather conditions. It is a food that is much sought after with its unique earthy aroma and grayish green color as well as its benefits to our health. The reason it is especially recommended to diabetic patients is that when consumed the human body excretes less insulin than with other grains. It is the most used grain after wheat in making bread. Rye flour, which gives bread a very different flavor is used together with wheat flour.
The most important fields of use for barley is animal feed and beer. Presently in the poles and high mountain areas where wheat cannot be planted barley is planted as a nutrition source. Even if there are small difference in terms of nutritional value it is very similar to wheat. Since the gluten content is low it is necessary to use barley flour together with wheat flour.
Oatmeal which is loaded with fiber is not only nutritious but effective in lowering cholesterol. It contains plenty of protein, lipids, fiber, mineral salts, vitamins and the vitamin group B. Oatmeal is available for consumption as flour, crushed oatmeal, whole oatmeal, muesli and breakfast cereal. The flour form of oatmeal can be used in bread and salty and sweet baked goods. Since the gluten content is low it must be used with wheat flour for making leavened bread.
It is considered that Mid and North America are the source of corn. Corn flour is rich with carbohydrates and starch but lacking in protein and vitamins. Corn flour is used a lot in our country, especially in the black sea region. Since the gluten content is low it must be used with wheat flour for making leavened bread.
Our bodies store the fat we intake through nutrition (the body’s capacity to store fat is unlimited) and use this fat when we need energy. Fats also enable the absorption of vitamins that dissolve in fat like A, D, E and K and protect the body temperature and organs from outside impacts.
However, excess fat in the body may cause obesity, heart disease and cancer. The recommended intake of fat should be an amount that fulfills 25-35% of the calories needed in a day.
Fats are comprised of basic units called fatty acids. The types of fats are formed by the various mixtures of fatty acids which have different properties:
When saturated fats, which are generally found in animal based foods, are consumed excessively they cause the cholesterol level to rise and pose a risk for heart disease, cancer and obesity. The connections of all the carbons that comprise the fatty acid chain in the saturated fat acids and which are all outside of the chain have been bonded with hydrogen.Saturated fatty acids are synthesized in the human body. Even if no fat is consumed these types of fatty acids can be synthesized from the molecules that are forms with the carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Saturated fats are in meat, whole fat dairy products (cheese, milk and ice cream), the skin of poultry and egg yolks. Vegetable based foods such as coconut, date oil and cocoa are also rich in saturated fats.
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. However even olive oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, soy oil and peanut oil contain small amounts of saturated fat. Saturated fats cause both the total cholesterol in the body and LDL (low density cholesterol) which is known as bad cholesterol to be high. This increases the risk of heart disease. It is recommended that only 7% at the most of the total calorie intake should come from saturated fats. For example a person consuming daily calories can consume 140 calories at the most from saturated fats. If it is considered that there are 9 calories in every gram of fat the amount of saturated fat consumed in one day should be 15-16 gr.
Unsaturated fats are the best source for the required fatty acids that the body needs. They are in liquid form in room temperature and most of them are plant based. One or more ties of the carbons in unsaturated fats are not bonded with hydrogen.
Unsaturated fats are divided into two categories which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats can be synthesized in the human body. It is recommended that monounsaturated fats be consumed in an amount that fulfills maximum15% of the daily calorie requirement and polyunsaturated fats be consumed to fulfill a maximum of 10% of the daily calorie requirement.
Monounsaturated fat oils are olive oil and canola oil and nuts with shells (hazelnut, peanut, walnut), nut with shells oil (peanut and almond oils) and avocados contain a large amount of unsaturated fat. While these fats remain liquid at room temperature they gradually harden in the refrigerator. As in the polyunsaturated fats, they are not susceptible to oxidation. Replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated fats will not only keep HDL cholesterol from getting low it will lower both total and LDL cholesterol.
A reduction in LDL can be achieved by replacing saturated fat acids with polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats have two main groups called omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids.
Foods that are rich in Omega–6 fatty acids (major omega–6 fatty acid is Lineolic Acid) are vegetable oils like corn oil, sunflower oil and soy oil. The lineolic acid in the body is metabolized to arachidoriic acid and a portion of it is transformed to gamma lineolic acid. Since linoleic acid is susceptible to free radical oxidation in the body the amount of lineolic acid intake should not exceed 10% of the total calories.
The major fatty acid of Omega–3 fatty acids is Alfa Lineolic Acid. Alfa lineolic acid metabolizes in the body to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are found plentifully in cold water fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna, etc.). The source of this acid in fish is the sea weed they eat. Omega–3 fatty acids decrease triglyceride levels and are very effective in preventing triglyceride rises after meals. This effect may be beneficial in the treatment of combined hyperlepidemia with elevated LDL and VLDL.
Their heart protecting effect is also evident in a tendency towards coagulation and reducing arrhythmia and sudden death. Deaths connected to chronic health disease have been found to be lower in consumers of Omega–3 fatty acids. According to studies, the dose of omega -3 fatty acid found to be effective is from 850 mg to1.5 gr. A portion of fish a day provides nearly 900 mg of omega-3 fatty acid. Therefore it is recommended that fish is eaten at least 2 times a week (300 g).
There are also studies that show another omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-lineolic acid, reduces MI risk. This is why omega-3 fatty acids should be increased in your diet. Other than fatty sea fish, Omega-3 can also be found in some plants, flaxseed and oil, canola oil, soy oil and hazelnut oil. It is beneficial to eat 5-6 hazelnuts a day. However consumption in excessive amounts to the point of increasing total calories and omega-6 acids should be avoided. There is no agreement yet on how much Omega–6 and Omega–3 fatty acids should be consumed. Lately it has been said that the Omega–6/Omega–3 ratio to be consumed in a diet should be 3/1. However there are studies that say it should be 1/1. It would be logical to increase the amount of omega-3 that is consumed and limit omega-6.
These are the solid fats that are created by subjecting plant based liquid oils to hydrogenation under high pressure. It is found in very few natural foods. Despite trans fats being resistant for a long time they have harmful effects on health. They can cause clogged arteries and the risk of a heart attack like saturated fats. By increasing the amount of bad cholesterol they cause the formation of residue that can clog arteries. There is no information available on how much trans fat is safe. It is important to consume products that contain trans fat carefully and not excessively. Trans fats are the most harmful fats. They not only raise the level of LDL(bad cholesterol) but they also reduce the level of HDL (good cholesterol). It is also thought that trans fats increase the risk of cancer (especially breast cancer). These are fats that should be avoided.
Yeast is comprised of a cell and belongs to the taxonomic group that is called fungi and includes molds.
There are many kinds of yeasts. The most The most recognized yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is used in the baking industry for leavening. Yeasts also play an important role in the production of some other products like wine and kefir. Most of the yeasts used in the food industry are round and separate by budding. This budding is a feature that helps them be recognized by a microscope. During budding the cells appear in the shape 8.
Yeasts need sugar to develop. They form alcohol and carbon dioxide from sugar. This reaction makes yeasts very important for the food industry. Also yeasts form pleasant aroma substances. These aroma components play an important role in the flavor of the final product. In beer yeasts are necessary to form alcohol and carbon dioxide for the top gap. In the bread industry both alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed but the alcohol evaporates during cooking. Yeasts can be found everywhere in nature, especially in plants and fruits.
After fruits have fallen from the trees they become moldy and rot and thus alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed from the sugar in the fruit. In industry yeasts are developed in big tanks of sugary water where oxygen is present.
When the desired amount of yeast is reached the liquid is pumped out and the yeast is dried.
Yeasts develop between 0-50°C, the best being from 20 to 30°C. Most yeasts need a lot of oxygen to develop. But some can live in anaerobic conditions. Some create green, yellow, red and black pigments.
1. Dry Yeast
2. Fresh Yeast
Fresh compressed yeast is mostly used in the baking sector,
Dry yeast is for household use. Both are produced with similar processes. Dry yeasts are produced with different yeast species and then dried later.
Pure yeast and molasses is used in the production of bread yeast.
Eggs are round and oval shaped objects which female animals, particularly birds, hatch that protect their embryos. Despite the eggs of many kinds of animals being edible, the first kind that comes to mind are chicken eggs. Chicken eggs are used in the preparation of endless foods. They are used in almost every cuisine throughout the world.
The increase in instant food consumption recently has popularized instant eggs in pasteurized and egg powder form. Studies show that the best quality protein is found in eggs. Also eggs contain the balanced and sufficient amount of amino acids which need to be taken from outside. There are high levels of vitamins A, B, D and E which are needed by the body.
They are necessary for the physical and mental development of children.
One egg is accepted as 50 grams on average and the nutritional value of one egg is;
Sugar or sucrose is found in most plants. But there are only two plants from which sugar can be obtained economically: sugar cane and sugar beet.
Sugar cane, which originates from India and the Arab countries, is raised throughout the world in tropical locations. There is no sugar cane farming in Turkey.
There is about 12-16% sugar in a sugar cane.
Sugar has been an important food matter for people for years and until the end of the 18th century was produced from sugar cane.
Sugar beet farming and producing sugar from sugar beets started in the 19th century Nearly 74.4% of the sugar produced in the world is from sugar cane while 25.6% is from sugar beets.
Sugar cane is raised in tropical and subtropical areas while sugar beets are raised in more moderate climates. Despite producing sugar from sugar beets being more expensive than producing sugar from sugar cane, measures are being taken to in many countries to continue production due to the economic contributions to the sugar sector and both agricultural and social reasons. In Turkey many trials were done to raise sugar cane in Turkey but this was abandoned when it became evident that it was not an economical approach.
The main raw material of sugar in Turkey is sugar beet. Starch based sugars, unlike sugar cane and sugar beets (saccharose) are derived from starch based raw materials (corn, wheat, potatoes) through various chemical means and are formed from glucose, iso-glucose, fructose and its derivatives. Starch based sugars are not consumed directly and are mostly used as input in the sugar products industry. The main fields of use for these flavor additives are candies, sugary and baked products, ice cream, helva, jam, marmalade and beverages with and without alcohol.
Varieties of Sugar :
Barley sugar :
Without sugar but actually the hard lemon flavored American candy is achieved by adding sugar to barley juice.
The 80% solution of sugar in water. The main sugars found in honey are fructose , glucose and saccharose.
•Barbados sugar :
Dark sugar cane.
Castor sugar :
Castor sugar is the name given to very fine grained sugar in England. It has taken on the name of Castor sue to the grains being very tiny. Due to its fineness it dissolves quicker and more easily than white sugar. This is why it is used often in cookies and cold beverages. But the grains of castor sugar are not as fine as the confectionaries subjected to a mechanical crushing process (and generally mixed with a small amount of starch to prevent clumping).
Tea sugar :
Cane or beet sugar that has been brought to normal grain form.
Very Fine Sugar :
A type of sugar found in America. In the structure of very fine grained sugar.
The synonym of glucose in English.
Brown Sugar :
Sugar to which a small amount of molasses has been added to achieve flavor and color.
Fructose (laevulose, fruit sugar) :
Found in fruit and honey and is high in sweetness (1.7 times the sweetness of normal sugar).
A type of sugar like lactose (dairy sugar) and raffinose ( a sugar found in beans) that is not normally found in foods other than constituting a part of other sugars. It constitutes a part of the cell wall components.
Glucose (dextrose) :
A type of sugar that is found in many plants and in the blood. It is a basic energy source for the body. It is less sweet than saccharose.
Gula djawa :
A partially refined sugar that is unique to Indonesia. Made from sugar cane or palm sugar.
Gur (jaggery) :
A partially refined sugar that is unique to India. Made from the sugar of sugar cane or palm.
Palm sugar :
A sugar that is obtained from palm plants and particularly contains saccharose.
Invert sugar :
Invert sugar is created as a result of heating a small amount of an acidic sugar (like lemon). In this case saccharose is reduced to its two components glucose and fructose and the size of the sugar crystals are also shrunk. Due to its small crystal structure, invert sugar is used in more fluid (with no clumping) products, candies and syrups. In jam and jello production, invert sugar is automatically produced when the acid which is found in fruit naturally combines with sugar and is heated.
Gelatin sugar (gel sugar, jam sugar) :
A combination of grain sugar and pectin (E440). Used in jello or marmalade.
Cane sugar :
The white crystal (saccharose)that is obtained from sugar cane. Sometimes it is sold as a type of brown sugar in Europe.
Rock sugar (because of its shape) :
Rock sugar is a type of sugar that is large, shiny and white or amber in color and not as sweet as grain sugar. The shiny white crystals are formed by the gradual crystallization of the saturated sugar solution. White rock sugar is seen as white because of the tiny cracks in it that reflect light. The amber colored crystals contain a small amount of caramel. Since there is water in the crystals it is less sweet.
Cream sugar :
The powdered sugar that is used to make frosting for cakes.
Crystal sugar :
Normal granular sugar or beet sugar; see saccharose. It is sold as granular sugar or pressed into cube shapes.
A sugar that is formed by the combination of galactose and glucose and found in dairy.
Synonymous with fructose.
Maltose (malt sugar) :
A sugar found in malt and beer.
Maple syrup :
A syrup that is obtained from Maple trees found in North America. It is a solution created by 70% saccharose and glucose in water. The main component is saccharose.
A type of tea sugar produced in Scandinavian countries.
Corn sugar :
Glucose obtained from corn.
Muscovado sugar :
Dark brown sugar.
Short chained carbohydrates that are obtained by enzymatic processes or large polysaccharides. Many of them are found in plants (beans, onions, garlic) or in milk. They are not used for flavoring but as prebiotics.
Beet Sugar :
White crystal sugar obtained from sugar beets (saccharose).
Piloncillo (panela, panocha):
Partially refined sugar unique to Mexico. Pressed into cone shapes.
Saccharose (sucrose, tea sugar, crystal sugar) :
The official chemical name for a basic type of sugar used in many products and in the home.
Sugar molasses :
The dark by product of sugar production. Especially made of caramel and minerals. Used in making brown sugar.
The same as saccharose in English.
A thick dense solution of sugar in water. The ratio of sugar changes from 50-80%.
Granulated sugar :
Normal small crystal sugars used at home .
Substances that provide sweetness but do not have any carbohydrate content. Most are artificial but some are natural. The degree of sweetness varies from 0.8x sugar (for example sorbitol) to 2000x (protein thaumatin).
Stringy sugar :
A type of sugar that hardens as it is boiled and turns stringy to use in decoration. Stringy sugar is made by heating the sugar, water and tartar sauce to the point of cracking. Then a fork or whisk is dipped into the sugar syrup to created strings of sugar.
Coarse sugar :
A type of decorating sugar with large granules. The crystals are 4 times as big as fine grained sugar. Used in cakes, etc. baked in the oven.
Grape sugar :
Vanilla sugar :
A pleasant aroma and tasty sugar that is obtained by placing vanilla beans (real vanilla) in granular sugar and generally at a ratio of two vanilla beans for one gram of sugar. This combination is left to stand in an air tight container for 1 week then the vanilla beans are taken out. As a result a tasty and aromatic sugar which is used in many desserts, fruits and oven-baked cakes, etc. and in decorations is obtained. The vanilla bean can be used over and over again like this for up to 6 months. Vanilla sugar can also be obtained from pure (no additive) vanilla. Sugar that is obtained by using vanilla is similar to vanilla in flavor but its distinction is obvious. This sugar can most suitably be called vanilla-sugar.
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) :
A syrup that is obtained from corn starch. Starch is first broken down enzymatically into glucose, then it is transformed enzymatically to sweeter fructose. It is used as a strong sweetener.
Salt is a mineral which is well known and used on a daily basis due to its vital importance. While it is not clear when people started using salt their acquaintance with salt went back to 10000 BC. It is estimated that salt was being produced in China in 3000 BC. Documentation of salt goes all the way back to 2250 BC. The salt trade created caravan roads. During the Heredot era salt trade between Syrian ports and the Iran bay was done over the desert. The salt sources on the branches of the Dnieper River helped develop trade between people living in Southern Russia and the Aegean. In some places salt was used in place of money. A salary (Salaria) was given to Roman soldiers to buy salt.
There are many words used in Turkish with roots from Latin, involving salt that are used without being aware. The word “Salsun” in Latin has entered our language as “Salça” and the seasoned salt called “Salcicius” has transformed to “Sosis” in our language. The word “Salamura” that we use is a combination of “Sal” and “Maria” to mean salty water.
Types of Salt
Seas constitute our world’s largest salt reserves. The sea is the unlimited capacity producer and salt recycler center.
The degree of saltiness varies according to whether or not they take in fresh water, their geographical properties and climate conditions.
For example while salt is 17 kg in 1 cubic meter in the Baltic Sea it rises up to 45 in the Red Sea. Since sea salts are loaded with heavy metals and similar harmful substances from environmental factors they are used after undergoing treatment. The molecular structure is not thin enough to pass into a cell. This is why it is not suitable to use for the body.
Salts that are obtained in solid form from underground are called rock salt. The rate of purity can not only be different in salts for each individual mine but it can also vary in different samples obtained from the same mine.
The foreign substances and clay in salt can give it different colors. Rock salt is generally in clay colors close to gray and black and is rarely white or transparent. The rock salts in our country are generally gray and some are close to black. Although rock salt can be found in many places in the world crystal salt is somewhat rare.
The difference between rock salt and crystal salt is the size of the molecules. Since the molecules of crystal salt are much smaller they go through cell membranes easily. Because the molecules of rock salt are much bigger they cannot pass through the cell membrane. This is why crystal salt should be used.
The only crystal salt that has 84 minerals which are completely naturally crystallized (colloidal). With water they pass through the cell membrane rich in minerals an turn into energy right away and provide 85% of our body’s energy with Himalayan salt. For more information click on Himalaya Crystal salts under the products section.
What is left when a rough natural salt is processed is SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaCl) lacking all natural minerals. Sodium Chloride is actually not a salt but a substance.
Since it tastes like salt it is used as table salt. Additives are added to this substance to make it more fluid, to make it clump less, to make it shiny and not hold moisture.
The source of refined salt is the sea and rock salts and it contains 84 elements. These natural salts are refined and 82 of its elements and trace elements are removed leaving only pure sodium chloride. Thus refined salt has nothing to do with natural salt. This is why salt causes more harm than good to the human body. Because table salt is aggressive to the human body and needs to be discharged.
Our bodies need 23 times the amounts of water just to discharge 1 gram of this aggressive poison. If there is enough water in our bodies to throw this salt out our kidneys can remove up to 5-7 grams per day. However it has been proven that people use 20 grams of salt per day. Excessive amounts of salt crystallize on bones and cause disorders
Excessive salt combines with animal proteins in the human body and turns into harmful substances called uric acid.
If there is not enough water in the body the water that is in cells is used to discharge this aggressive poison. If too much cell fluid is used this will cause dehydration and the cells will die.
If the cell does not die and mutates, a variety of illnesses can appear in the body. This is why refined salt is responsible for increasing blood pressure, because high blood pressure is a product of constant dehydration in the body. When cells are sacrificed to remove refined salt from the body the body starts a rapid drying process.
The body crystallizes the table salt it has not been able to neutralize in the body on bones and joints. This causes organism disorders that will cause our bodies to die in the long run.
It is likely that before Christ a group of Olmecs were raising cocoa trees in South America. The Mayans witnessed an animal taking a fruit off this tree and in time learned what to do with the seed of the fruit. In 600 A.D. Mayans make a chocolate drink.
According to the legend the Aztec King Moctezuma drank 50 cups of chocolate a day. Drinking chocolate was an important activity in the Aztecs and Mayans.
This beverage which was considered to be mainly for royalty among the Mayans was only consumed at special occasions by regular people. In the Aztecs administrators, priests, ranking officer and merchants who were to be honored could have a taste of this special drink. During the explorations of Spanish Christopher Columbus and Hernán Cortés, they were served this chocolate drink by Aztec King Moctezuma in the trip they made to Central America in the 16th century. The explorers took this drink back to their country and showed how it is prepared. This is a drink that Mayans and Aztecs make by mixing ground cocoa beans with water.
This drink called “xocoatl” which in the Aztec language means “sour, bitter drink” was prepared adding pepper and other spices and consumed cold. The Spanish started drinking the same drink with sugar. After 80 years solid chocolate started being sold in England to make beverages. Thus “chocolate houses” selling solid chocolate spread throughout Europe. In the 1700s the British started adding milk to this drink. The first local chocolate producer in Turkey was established in 1927 in Feriköy. The traces of the oldest chocolate found to date was in a pot with a 2600 year history.
Cocoa, which is obtained from the cocoa tree referred to in Latin as Thebromocacao, meaning “food of the gods”, is produced in Western Africa, the Western Indian Islands and South America. Cocoa trees start bearing fruit after four years. The trees which are 4-10 meters high produce twice in a year. The fruits which emerge near the trunk and main branches are 35 cm long when ripe. Inside one fruit there are 20-40 seeds about 2.5 cm long which are the cocoa beans. The seeds which are taken out of the meaty ripe fruit are fermented for a few days in banana leaves. Then they are dried in the sun to become ready for processing in factories. The cocoa beans which are cleaned in the factory are then roasted and ground.
The liquid that is a paste consistency is used for making chocolate. Also cocoa and cocoa oil can be obtained by pressing.
The roasted cocoa parts are mixed with sugar and made into dough with a heavy cylinder. This dough is formed into thin layers of chocolate and cocoa oil is added o these layers for softening. Then the layers are placed into a machine with rectangular grooves. The cylinders in the grooves make the chocolate a soft smooth consistency. The chocolate which then takes on a liquid form is poured into molds and left to cool. The mold is slightly heated to remove the solidified chocolate. Milk chocolate is obtained by adding milk powder from cow’s milk and other flavor and aroma additives.
While making different kinds of chocolate the ingredient “lecithin”, obtained from soy beans, is added to make the chocolate soft and easily handled.