Using the technique of boiling to cook food is one that has become widespread among the kitchen techniques.
It is particularly preferred in beef, veal, chicken, fish and vegetables. The purpose of boiling is to maintain the aroma of foods, make their digestion easier and be safe in terms of their nutritional value.
First the water is boiled then the desired food in placed in the boiling water, the heat is reduced and the food is boiled for a certain time. The heat must not be very high. Otherwise if the what is boiling too violently meat will get hard and vegetables will crumble. Since the vitamins of the boiled food pass to the water and the boiling water is flavorful it should not be thrown away.
When a variety of spices are added to the boiling water different soups of sauces can be created. Many vegetables can be stored in the deep freeze after a short time of boiling. Also after the vegetables and fruits have been boiled dip hem in cold water and then you can use them to cook the next time without boiling.
COOKING IN WATER
This is a very sensitive cooking process that is done in carefully monitored temperatures between 65° and 80°C.
This is the process of cooking with dry or moist steam with or without pressure.
Frying is a process in which foods are cooked in increasing or set temperatures of hot oil.
This is divided into 2 groups called deep frying and frying in a little oil.
The oil that will be used for frying must be clear, neutral flavor, without residue and light.
It should not be dense or runny and should not cause a lot of smoke when it reaches high temperatures. There should be no souring in oil and refined oil should be used.
No new oil should be added to hot oil. The proper frying temperature is between 200 and 250 degrees.
This is a method that is often used to cook small or thinly cut foods quickly. If you are using a non-stick pan you do not need to add oil. But if you do not have this type of pan add a tablespoon of oil. By constantly stirring while cooking you prevent the essential juices of the food from being released and protect the nutritional element.
COOKING ON LOW HEAT
Food is cooked without adding fluid or a very small amount added in its own juices.
Grilling is based on the principle of holding foods against direct heat to cook equally. In order to make sure that foods get enough heat to cook you should cook each side for 3-5 minutes. In open air it is important to make sure that the coal has reached an ember stage and that the foods do not touch the coal.
GRATIN, AU GRATIN
Food is cooked by heating only from above.
Meat products, dough, vegetables-fruits and fish are baked in an oven. Each type of food has its own unique cooking temperature and these temperatures vary according to the features of the food. Therefore the oven must first be set at a suitable temperature according to the type of food. The baking temperature changes according to the ingredient between 150 and 250 degrees. It is possible for you to cook food in the oven with dry air with less oil. If you do not want the food you cook to be overly crispy you can cover it and if you want it to be crispy you can leave it uncovered. The best part about cooking in the oven is that you don’t need to add oil. In order to prevent the small amount of oil you have applied from burning your can place a wire grill between the food and the bottom of the pan. Foods cooks with fat and juices contained in them therefore they do not lose any flavor.
MAKING A ROAST
Making a roast is using dry heat at medium temperature to cook food by basting regularly and cooking uncovered.
Roasting in fat; cooking the food at low heat in fat, uncovered and without adding juice.
COOKING IN ITS OWN JUICES
The process of cooking food covered in the oven or in a pressure cooker with a small amount of fluid.
The purpose of this method is to maintain the shape of the food. The feature of poaching, which is also known as a moist-wet cooking technique, is that food is cooked partially in water and partially in steam in a shallow receptacle. For example; place water in a covered pot (meat broth, chicken broth, fish broth). Place the food (especially egg or fish) halfway in the water. Then close the cover so that part cooks in the water and part in the steam. In this technique;
This technique is not used much in Turkish cuisine but is common in world cuisine. It is the method of applying reduced juices of the food to the outer surface of the food (chicken, turkey, beef, lamb and some vegetables).
Points to be Aware of When Choosing a Knife
Every chef should have the following equipment
KNIVES AND MAINTENANCE
All Chicken Dishes:
Chicken can be made baked, boiled, stuffed, grilled and fried.
Chicken Drumstick Dishes:
Chicken drumstick dishes include baked drumsticks, fried drumsticks and grilled drumsticks.
Chicken Wing Dishes:
The most popular is grilled chicken wings. Also wings are baked and fried.
Chicken Thigh Dishes:
Chicken thighs are boiled, fried and grilled.
Chicken Breast Dishes:
Chicken breast dessert, boiled chicken breast, grilled chicken breast, chicken breast soups and fried chicken breast is made.
LAMB MEAT AND ITS FEATURES
The immature sheep is called a lamb up to one year. Suckling lamb is butchered at 1-2 months. Therefore their weight varies from 7 to 15 kg.
There is no flavor difference between the meat of male and female lamb, but females are preferred for being fattier. Lamb meat is known for being pinkish with white fat and bone and the meat is a dark pink that is fine and firm. Lamb slaughtering can go from January to the end of May. Suckling lamb cooks very quickly but lambs that reach 15-20 kg require more time to cook. Large lambs can be found any season. A lamb that is 28-30 kg when live yields 14-15 kg of meat.
BEEF AND ITS FEATURES
Since the neck, rump and belly portions of a cow are more mobile they are more muscular and tough compared to the other parts. The portions that are further away from the neck, rump and belly are the softest and therefore most expensive part of beef. Beef is sold by butchers in the following sections depending on what they are to be used for: The neck, flank, brisket and shoulder portions are tougher because they are more mobile parts of the animal and are mostly used for ground beef.
Round, counter round and bodigo (rump) portions are suitable for eating boiled. The topside and thick flank section of beef is used a meat. The rib, chuck and sirloin parts are the softer portions and therefore are ideal for grilling. Veal and beef is stored in lose wrapping. Small chunks of meat and ground beef spoils easily. Thawed meat should be used right away and never refrozen. If necessary to store meat for a long time it should be kept in a freezer or deep freeze.
Fish are among the most easily spoiled foods. If it is not fresh it will have a bad taste and smell. When fish is bought it should be cooked in a short time and should not be stored very long. It should be cleaned thoroughly before placing in a pan of before freezing to be used next time. Not all fish need to be descaled. The scales of fish do not need to be removed for grilling and baking in the oven. Filets are obtained from fish that is cleaned and ready to be cooked. Proper filleting knives need to be used to filet fish. There is a special filleting knife which is smaller and slipperier than normal knives to use for wide filleting.
How do you pick out fresh fish?
Large oily fish should be selected, otherwise they will stick to the grill. Both side should be scratched with the knife to avoid cracking while cooking. Too cook faster the fish can also be cut up and placed on skewers.
Large fish should be fried in slices and small fish should be fired whole. Lightly floured fish is more flavorful and won’t stick to the pan. The fish to be fried should be thoroughly cleaned and dried with paper towel.
In the shallow frying technique a small amount of oil is placed in a non-stick pan. The fish must cook on a very thin layer of oil.
Cooking in the oven involves placing the fish with vegetables in an oven plate and baking at a medium heat like 180.
Cooking in a high heated oven without anything added. When cooked right the outer layer of the fish is crispy and the inside is juicy.
After lightly greasing the inside of a thick non-stick pan and heating the fish filets are cooked 2 minutes on each side.
WHAT KIND IF FISH IS EATEN IN WHAT SEASON
The most suitable fish in this season it terms of oiliness are gray mullet and anchovies. Mackerel, bluefish, bonito and scad maintain their flavor. It is easy to find young bluefish, large bluefish and haddock. Also mullet and gurnard is heavily fished. Red mullet, swordfish and bream is fished less.
The Turbot season that starts in February continues till the end of May. Mullet is plentiful. Mackerel, bluefish and bonito start to lose their fat. Grey mullet continues to be tasty.
The tastiest time for grey mullet, sea bass and turbot. Mackerel has become dried out and the bluefish and bonito have lost their fat so they can be cooked fried or oven baked form. Large bluefish can be grilled. Red mullet is delicious.
The most plentiful time for turbot. Bream, sea bass, swordfish and gurnard is plentiful. This is why they are more affordable compared to other months. However swordfish is not very tasty. “gürnüş” fish, grey mullet, haddock, and red mullet are heavily fished. Meagre is seen in this month.
Bass, red mullet, sole, mullet swordfish and scorpion fish are enjoyed. It is possible to find them all in the market because they are plentiful. Mackerel, bonito, anchovies and scad have lost their fat but grey mullet is tasty.
Fish is caught less in June. Since the bottom fish have hatched they move dispersed. This is why it is an unproductive month for fishing. Mullet, red mullet, bream and meager can be found but it is expensive.
Sardines start in this season and continue to the middle of October, shad and mackerel is good for frying and boiling. Mullet and red mullet is tasty but grey mullet is not.
The gypsy bonito season starts. They are the size of mackerel or a little bigger. This is the tastiest time for sardines. There is no getting enough of delicious sword fish in August and picarel is very tasty. Grey mullet is not recommended.
Sardines and swordfish is tasty. Bonito has gotten larger and is suitable to cook any style. Bluefish is expensive this season but scad and gurnard are plentiful.
The season when temporary fish feed in the Black Sea and migrate to the Marmara Sea. This is why they are plentiful. Mackerel is especially in season. Bluefish has just gotten its flavor and scad has gained its fat. Bonito is plentiful. Mullet, red mullet, swordfish, bass, bream, sardines, meager, bonito and picarel are affordable.
The best time for mackerel. The bonito flow has started. This is the month that flounder is most delicious. All of the fish available and tasty in October is also good in November.
Mackerel, bluefish and bonito has become fatty therefore they can be prepared any way. Anchovies are tasty. Mullet is readily available.
HOW DO YOU FILET A FISH
Turkish; hamur, English; dough, French; pate and Italian; pasta. The main ingredient is flour. The yeast, milk, water, oil (butter, olive oil) and other ingredients that are added undergo a form change and become bread, macaroni, noodles, cookies and muffins.
Whether the dough is hard or soft is adjusted by the gluten content. The more the gluten content is in a flour the more elastic the dough is. The gluten that is created by the proteins that do not dissolve in water come forth in the processing style of the dough. The rate of gluten in soft wheat flours is less than that of gluten in hard wheat flours. Macaronis made with soft wheat flours have a greater possibility of mixing into the water and macaronis made with these flours can stick together.
When the gluten in dough emerges in correct proportion with kneading, however much the dough is kneaded it is that much more flexible. Kneading in the traditional sense is kneading by hand. One of the conveniences provided to us by present technology is kitchen machines. With advanced apparatus in machines that handle all kinds of kneading processes it is easy to knead dough.
Methods for making leavened dough:
To make leavened dough one of 2 methods is selected; either the straight dough method or the sponge method. Then punching down, portioning and proofing is done to prepare the dough for cooking.
Single stage dough preparation:
Classic dough prepared by combining, yeast, water, flour, salt, etc. together.
Made up of beneficial bacteria which leaven dough. When salt, sugar or boiling water come into direct contact it loses its function.
Dual stage dough preparation:
First the yeast is combined with all wet ingredients and half the flour. The dough is set aside to rise. In the second stage the flour, oil if any, salt and sugar are added. It is kneaded and set aside to rise again. Thus a lighter dough is achieved.
this method of punching the dough is done by folding the dough again and kneading. Doing this removes the gases and gluten is created to make a more elastic dough.
After the kneading process the dough is portioned and then set aside to rest. The purpose of this is to make sure the dough rises equally.
The leavening process at 21-39 degrees before cooking.
A type of food unique to Jews. The ring shaped bread is usually used at breakfast. It can contain fruit according to taste.
A Mexican sandwich bread.
Italian bread sticks. Usually used as an appetizer before dinner.
A Jewish bread. Made with egg and butter.
Italian village bread.
Cor grain bread:
A Jewish bread.
A French breakfast bread made with layers of dough.
Leavened muffins. Served in England with butter, jam or cheese. Should be moistened before eating.
A German bread made with rye flour.
A thick crust French bread.
Thick crusted like French bread. It is the classic Italian bread.
A type of bread made from rye in Europe.
A type of sour yeast dough. Consumed with seafood.
Prepared by frying a leavened dough in oil.
A type of pastry cooked in oil or on an iron pan.
A leavened bread cooked in stone ovens in a wood fire.
The Importance of Stocks and Soups in the Kitchen
Stocks are achieved by boiling bones, meat and vegetables. Sometimes milk, oil and other nutrients are used as stock. The stock obtained from bone and meat is called bouillon. It is the main fluid of sauces, soups and dishes. Stocks are closely relevant to the quality of the soup and sauce.
Stocks vary according to where they are used. While they provide flavor and appearance to the prepared food they also increase the nutritional value. For example the use of chicken stock in cream of chicken soup increases the quality, flavor and nutrition of the soup. The use of chicken stock in fish soup confuses the flavor. This shows the inexperience of the person making the soup. The same is true for sauces and dishes. It is important that the right stock is used for the right dish.
Brown Stocks “fond brun”:
Brown stocks are made from beef bones and meat. Bones are fried with bones, vegetables and oil and tomato paste and seasonings are added. First the bones are roasted in the oven until they are browned and then they are added to the other ingredients.
When the meat being roasted (cooking a large piece of meat in the oven) is close to being done mire-poix, herbs and spices are added. When the meat is cooked it is removed and tomato paste and water is added and it is boiled for 1-2 hours, strained and the achieved product is called fond’a jus de roti.
Demi glace sauce is prepared, strained and the remaining portion has water added to it and then it is boiled for 1-2 hours.
Game animals stock:
Brown stock can be prepared from beef bones and meat as well as game. The only difference is that game animals bones and meat are used.
White Stocks “fond blanc”:
While preparing white stock beef meat and bones are used with seasonings. The difference from other stocks is that the bones and other ingredients are not roasted. They are boiled and strained. If the bones are dirty or have been waiting than blanching is definitely done.
Dirty bones are first washed. Then they are place in a pan and boiled. The prepared bones are thrown into the boiling water. After coming to a boil they are removed and placed in cold water. If necessary the process is repeated. The purpose is to remove unwanted dirt and smells.
The difference from beef stock is that chicken bones, necks, wings, herbs and spices are used. All of the ingredients are boiled for 2-3 hours and strained. When there aren’t enough chicken bones a bit of veal bone can be added.
Prepared with the bones and head of large non fatty fish, white mire-poix, herbs and spices. After all of the ingredients are cooked for 2-3 hours they are strained and used. Fish stock is only used in fish soup, fish dishes and sauces.
Vegetables stocks are prepared using any vegetables that are in season. While preparing this stock the vegetable that is going to be prepared is emphasized in the stock. Herbs and seasonings that are suitable for the type of vegetable are selected. The boiling time varies according to the type of vegetable. Vegetable stock is especially good for soups, dishes and sauces for vegetarians.
Principles for Making Stock
The stocks and bouillons that are prepared can be stored short term and long term for use later. Because it takes so long to prepare stocks and bouillons they are prepared in large amounts. The excess is stored in various forms.
After the prepared stocks and bouillons are strained they can be used wherever you wish. If they are to be used soon stocks and bouillon can be cooled and stored. Cooling is done at room temperature in a wide container. Then it can be placed into suitable containers and kept in a cold room or refrigerator at +2, +5ºC for one day.
Storing by Thickening “Glace de viande”:
The portion of the bouillon not being used is placed in a wide pan and left to boil at low heat. The boiling process is continued until the bouillon is reduced by 1/8. It is then cooled at room temperature. The bouillon is placed in one portion containers. The description and date is written on the packages and they are placed in the freezer at -32 °C. They can be stored for up to 6 months in the freezer at -18 °C.
The Principles for Storing and Using Stock and Bouillon
PREPARING WHITE STOCK
For 2 liters of stock (2 kg beef bone, 4 liters water, ½ kg vegetable onion, carrot, celery, leek, thyme, parsley, bay leaf) 10 peppercorns, 6 types of spices, salt)
Break the bones with marrow. Blanch them. Place in a pot. Add the vegetables and cold water and bring to a boil. Once it boils skim the fat. Boil on low heat for 5-6 hours. Shortly before removing from heat add salt. If vegetables are used instead of bones it is called vegetable stock, if chicken meat and bones are used it is called chicken stock, if fish heads and bones are used it is called fish stock and if game animal bones and meat are used it is called game animal stock.
PREPARING BROWN STOCK
For 5–6 liters (5 kg beef bone, 75 g butter, 8 liters water, 100 g Mirepoix, 2 bay leaves, 100 g tomato paste, 250 cc wine, 10 peppercorns, 10 spices, salt)
Break up the beef bones and blanch. Put the butter in the pan. Add the bones and meat. Stir the stove periodically. Add the vegetables. Saute the meat and vegetables. Add herbs and spices. Add the tomato paste and stir. Add wine and blend. Add cold water and bring to a boil stirring periodically. Close to removing from the stove add salt. Boil on low heat at least 5-6 hours, strain and use.
Soups are a type of food that use stock and, especially in the Turkish cuisine, take first place on the menu, are nutritious, easy on your stomach fluid dishes served in plates and in bowls that are even consumed at breakfast. Soups vary depending on their content, consistency and method for cooking.
The Consistency and Flavor Additives used in Soups
A variety of mixtures are used to add flavor and thickness to soups. These can be sauces as well as cream, milk, butter, flour and eggs. Mixtures vary according to the type and consistency of soup. For soups without good thickness a mixture of flour and butter called beurre manie, meyane in Turkish cuisine and roux in international cuisines is used.
Preparation of Roux Varieties
An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked in the butter until the aroma fades away without the flour darkening. It is used as a thickener in white soups and sauces.
An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked to a golden color. Used to thicken soups and in sauces.
An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked to a light brown color. Used to thicken soups and in sauces.
Preparation of Beurre Manie
Used to thicken soups and in sauces and dishes. Butter and flour are mixed together in a bowl to a paste consistency. The mixture is stored in glass jars or suitable containers and used when necessary. As much beurre manie as is necessary is taken out for use. It is added quickly to soup or sauce while stirring constantly.
Preparation of Liaison
Liaison is used in cream soups as a flavor additive. It is prepared with cream, nutmeg and egg yolk. All of the ingredients are placed in a bowl and stirred with a whisk. It is added to the creamy soup shortly before removing from the stove and stirred in quickly. The soup is removed from the stove before boiling. The soup must not boil. (100 gr cream, 1 egg yolk, ½ teaspoon nutmeg).
The Definition and Features of Clear Soups
Clear soups (consommé) are soups with a high nutritional value made from ground meat and game meat, vegetables, spices and cold stock. They are named after the type of ingredients used like chicken consommé and fish consommé.
The garnishes are added later according to the type of soup. When the soups is finished no ingredients are visible in the soup. The flavor, aroma and nutrition are what characterize the soup.
Types of Consommé:
Petit marmite Varieties
Principles for Preparing Consommé
Principles for Preparing to Serve
CONSOMME (Clear broth)
4 servings (200 gr ground beef, 1 egg white, 1 lt cold white stock, 100 gr vegetables (onion, carrot, celery, leek or a bouquet of garnishes), 3–4 peppercorns, 2 sprigs of herbs, 1 bay leaf, 200 gr ice, 1 bunch parsley stems, a small amount of grated nutmeg, salt, 1 clove of garlic).
Cream soups are one of the varieties of soups that are popular in international kitchens. They have an important place in the menu. They are nutritional, tasty and thick soups. The thickness is achieved by using flour cooked in butter (roux). If the soup is not the desired thickness beure manie is used. When there is no time to prepare beure manie starch dissolved in cold water is used. The most important feature of cream soups is that liaison is used.
Principles for Making Cream Soup
4 servings (200 gr white mire-poix, 50 gr butter margarine or cooking oil, 50 gr flour, 1 lt white stock, 1 lt vegetable stock, salt, white pepper, liaison, 100 gr cream, 1 egg yolk, grated nutmeg. To prepare creamy mushroom soup use 150 gr mushrooms, to prepare creamy chicken soup use 200 gr breast meat. Stir the white stock and boil for 30 min. Strain the vegetables without crushing them. Check the taste and add salt if needed.
Add the garnish (chicken or mushroom) to the soup in measured amounts. Add white pepper. Prepare liaison. First add a few spoons of the soup to the Liaison to equal the temperature. Thus you will prevent it from separating. Stir thoroughly and remove from the stove before boiling. If it boils the egg and cream will separate.
Vegetable soups are generally clear in appearance and contain vegetables that have been chopped according to international methods. Since they are made from vegetables and stock they are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins.
A thick soup that is made by cooking, pureeing and straining starchy vegetables. Since it is made from starchy vegetables the soup is thick. Any stock can be used to make pureed soups. When serving, croutons or mint, thyme and red pepper in melted butter can be used as garnish.
Principles for Making Pureed Soups
MIXED PUREED SOUP
6 servings (50 gr oil (margarine, butter or cooking oil), 50 gr onion, 50 gr white mire poix, 2 lt white stock, 200 gr potato, lentil, carrot, peas, salt, black pepper, parsley, 25 gr butter, crouton) Prepare the stock.
Thaw out the previously prepared stock. After cleaning and sorting the vegetables chop them mirepoix. Put the pot on the stove, add butter and the ingredients and fry. Add the stock. Leave to boil. After it has boiled crush the mixture. Process in a press, strainer or processor and strain. Return to the stove and add salt and butter. Serve hot.
Sauce is a liquid or semi solid food that is served with food or used in the preparation of food. Generally it adds to the flavor, moisture and appearance of food. Joseph Favre defines sauce as “a flavorful substance that is liquid or gelatinous which can be thickened by adding flour, starch, egg yolk or blood”.
The prerequisites for a good sauce
These are known for their deep thick aroma resulting from the cooking of sharp aroma particles of tasty vegetables and tomato puree and the browning of protein content materials like meat and bones.
Where Brown Sauces Are Used/strong>
Brown sauces are generally served with sautéed meat but can also be used to compliment ho egg dishes, hot appetizers, boiled vegetables, lettuce, celery, Belgian succor and other vegetables.
Main Brown Sauces
Demi-glace, game demi-glace, yoğun dana jus
Made by boiling equal amounts of veal or beef broth and espagnole ( one of the 5 classic sauces of French cuisine) and reducing the liquid by half. The result is a thick rich sauce. Although these types of sauces are suitable for meat and other rich food they are also used as a base for rich sauces and soups. Demi-glace requires a lot of effort therefore it is popular to use beef broth and in fact "semi-glace" versions instead. Although many chefs still insist on making their own demi-glace sauces. To avoid the unique effort for making this sauce many professional kitchens have developed concentrations or mixtures to use.
The flavor of white sauce is based on the natural flavor of the broth base or boiling fluid that has been used. The prerequisite for making white sauces is an outstanding pure aroma broth. White sauces are generally classified as garnishes. It is very important to select the right broth to compliment the dish that the sauce will be served with.
Where White Sauces Are Used
Used for meat dishes in which meat broth must be used, in poultry dishes where chicken broth must be used, fish and seafood dishes where fish broth must be used and macaroni, vegetable and egg dishes where milk must be used.
Basic White Sauces
Veal velouté, chicken velouté, fish velouté, bechamel sauce
Velouté sauce is one of the 5 sauces of the French cuisine along with béchamel, espanole and allemande. It is made by thickening a broth made with the uncooked bones of chicken, beef or fish by adding blond roux. The ingredients of Velouté sauce are butter, flour, broth, salt and pepper for the roux. Generally the sauce is named after the broth that is used. Velouté sauces are used as a base for other sauces.
Chicken velouté, lemon juice, egg yolk and cream
Chicken velouté, lemon juice, egg yolk and cream
Fish velouté, pearl onion, white wine
SAUCES WITH SOLID FAT
The emulsion of warm whisked egg yolk and plain cooking oil.
The Uses for Solid Fat Sauces
Since egg yolks have a high level of cholesterol and solid oil contains a lot of calories, cholesterol and fat, these types of sauces should generally be served with low fat food such as steamed vegetables, steamed fish or grilled meat.
Basic Solid Fat Sauces
Hollandaise sauce, Bernaise sauce and sauce with solid fat
With lovely colors and fruity, acidy flavors, tomato sauces are very appetizing.
Basic Tomato Sauces
The tomatoes that are used for these sauces must be completed matured, meaty tomatoes or small oval Italian cherry tomatoes should be selected. In macaroni and noodle dishes it is served with vegetables, used in cook by order tomato soups and added to brown sauce varieties.
These are oil based cold sauces.
•Clear oil sauces:
Ideal for sauces with herbs, spices and evaporating oils used as salad dressings and as marinade for cooked vegetables, mushrooms, fish or seafood.
•Mayonnaise Based Sauces:
A homogenous emulsion of whisked egg yolk and vegetable oils.
Special sauces are a group that is not derived from the basic sauces and used hot or cold. Most of these sauces are spicy in contrast to the food they are served with. Additionally in order to complete the food they accentuate the missing flavor components.
THE USES FOR SPECIAL SAUCES
These sauces are used as seasoning. For example; ketchup, pepper sauce, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, mango chutney, sweet and sour sauce, etc.